International Study of Biodiversity and Employment

A report to the European Commission considers the nature and number of jobs linked to biodiversity. Direct jobs are those which manage and conserve protected areas, or in biodiversity sustained sectors, such as in fisheries, forestry and agriculture. In ecosystem services, such as water provision and purification, people are employed in water management and related industries. The number of jobs attributed to biodiversity and ecosystem services is significant both in the EU and developing countries, although there is a difference in distribution and skill-levels. Ecoservice jobs represent 35% of jobs in developing countries compared to 7% in the EU. Also, in the EU, biodiversity-related employment is often highly skilled, whereas in developing countries, it tends to be low skilled and poorly paid, particularly in primary industries such as agriculture and fishing.


The Social Dimension of Biodiversity Policy: Final Report for the European Commission, (231 pages) is available at:

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