Importantly, the paper includes what it calls “the most comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies available covering petroleum products, electricity, natural gas, and coal.” The report estimates the post-tax subsidies for energy around the world at $1.9 trillion in 2011, with the top three subsidizers, in absolute terms: the United States ($502 billion), China ($279 billion), and Russia ($116 billion).
ReadEnergy Subsidy Reform: Lessons and Implicationsat:http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2013/012813.pdf.
A related paper by the Overseas Development Institute throws light on the current dilemma of international carbon development goals and fossil fuel subsidies. For examples, it points out that five countries (China, Egypt, India, Indonesia and Mexico), appear in both the list of top 12 recipients of climate finance and the list of top 12 providers of fossil-fuel subsidies to domestic consumers. SeeAt Cross-Purposes: Subsidies and Climate Compatible Investment at: http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/7343-subsidies-climate-compatible-investment-fossil-fuel-private-finance