Energy East Pipeline: Transporting Crude Oil for Export, not Processing

Contrary to the economic projections put forth by TransCanada Pipeline, a new report released on March 18 contends that the proposed Energy East pipeline will be used primarily as a means to export crude oil, rather than to refine it in Canada.

The Energy East project would convert 3,000 kilometres of existing natural gas pipeline in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario to carry crude oil, and also would build over 1,500 km of new pipelines through Quebec and New Brunswick, with the objectiveenergyeastreport of carrying 1.1 million barrels of crude oil per day. In September 2013, an industry-sponsored report by Deloitte & Touche consultants projected job creation in the order of 10,000 jobs in development and construction, and 1,000 ongoing jobs in the operational phase.

TransCanada’s Energy East Pipeline: For Export, Not Domestic Gain argues that the crude delivered by Energy East would exceed the processing capacity of existing Canadian refineries, given that they also source crude from the U.S., the Newfoundland offshore, and in the future, the newly-approved Line 9 pipeline project. The authors argue that new refineries are unlikely to be built in Canada, and point to TransCanada’s proposed plans for export terminals at Gros Cacouna, Québec (east of Québec City) and Saint John, New Brunswick to prove that the intended purpose of the oil is export.

LINKS

TransCanada’s Energy East Pipeline: For Export, Not Domestic Gain, prepared jointly by the Council of Canadians, Ecology Action Centre, Environmental Defence and Equiterre, is available at: http://www.canadians.org/publications/transcanada%E2%80%99s-energy-east-export-pipeline-not-domestic-gain

CBC summary is at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/energy-east-pipeline-benefits-overblown-report-says-1.2576782

Energy East: The Economic Benefits of TransCanada’s Canadian Mainline Conversion Project (Sept. 2013) is on the Deloitte website at: http://www.energyeastpipeline.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Energy-East-Deloitte-Economic-Benefits-Report.pdf

Growth of Canada’s Clean Tech Sector

The fourth annual Canadian Clean Technology Industry Report by private consulting company Analytica Advisors was released on March 6 in Ottawa, stating that the clean-tech industry is “coming of age”. According to the report, the industry is comprised of over 700 Canadian companies which in 2012 generated $5.8 billion in exports, spent $1 billion in research and development, and created 41,100 new jobs across Canada. Twenty percent of the workforce in the sector is 30 years old and under. The survey authors predict that, at current growth rates, “this will become a $28 billion industry by 2022, employing over 75,000”. The clean tech industry has benefited from government investment of $598 million in 246 projects through the Sustainable Technology Development Fund and the NextGen Biofuels Fund, both administered by Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).

LINKS

Press release re Canadian Clean Technology Industry Report is at: http://analytica-advisors.com/sites/default/files/2014%20Canadian%20Clean%20Technology%20Industry%20Report%20Analytica%20Press%20Release%20March%206th%202014%20SHORT_EN_Final.pdf.

The Table of Contents is at: http://analytica-advisors.com/sites/default/files/CTIR_TOC_2014.pdf, indicating the level of detail of the survey, but the full report is available only for sale at $2,500.

Sustainable Technology Development Canada website is at: http://www.sdtc.ca/index.php?page=alias-3&hl=en_CA (English), and http://www.sdtc.ca/index.php?page=home&hl=fr_CA (French); their Knowledge Centre has an archive of reports on the sector.

Expanding Recycling will bring New Jobs to California

According to a new report from the Tellus Institute, California could create 110,000 jobs if it meets its 2020 goal to recycle 75% of its solid waste. From Waste to Jobs: What Achieving 75 Percent Recycling Means for California is a follow-up to a 2011 report that asserted a 75% recycling rate for the entire U.S. could generate 1.5 million new jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 515 million metric tons.

Using recovered materials to create new products and packaging is more labour-intensive than incineration or sending them to the landfill. If California sticks to the 2011 AB 341 bill signed by Governor Jerry Brown, it will increase its solid waste diversion rate from half to three quarters while creating 34,000 jobs in materials collection, 26,000 jobs in materials processing, and 56,000 jobs during the manufacture of products using recycled materials. Plastics recycling is particularly significant, potentially delivering 29,000 new jobs alone. 38,600 indirect jobs could also be created in related sectors, such as equipment and services used by the recycling sector.

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), which commissioned the report, recommends encouraging product stewardship and extended producer responsibility programs requiring packaging manufacturers to support the expansion of recycling infrastructure.

LINKS

From Waste to Jobs: What Achieving 75 Percent Recycling Means for California is available at: http://www.nrdc.org/recycling/files/green-jobs-ca-recycling-report.pdf

The 2011 Tellus report More Jobs, Less Pollution is available at: docs.nrdc.org/globalwarming/files/glo_11111401a.pdf

NRDC California Recycling Website is at: http://www.nrdc.org/recycling/green-jobs-ca-recycling.asp

The Importance of New Skills Training for Construction, Managers and all Occupations, in a Low Carbon Europe

Greener Skills and Jobs, a joint publication of the the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), was released at the 2nd Green Skills Forum in Paris in mid-February.

The publication consists of papers presented by policy makers, researchers, experts from international ogreener-skills-and-jobs_9789264208704-enrganisations and academics at the first forum in 2012. With a focus on European experience, the papers are organized into three sections: Gearing up Education for Training and Growth; Enterprise Approaches For a Workforce Fit For a Green Economy; and Integrating Skills Into Local Development Strategies For Green Job Creation.

Beyond the expected overview of the quantity and quality of green jobs in the EU countries and the arguments for the need for labour market flexibility and retraining, the 228-page document also offers detailed and specific chapters, including: “Licensing and certification to increase skills provision and utilisation amongst low-carbon small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom” (a study of construction trades and the emerging energy efficiency jobs), and “Managerial skills in the green corporation”, which used case study interviews to confirm the importance of three competencies for middle and top managers: change management leadership, collaborative openness, and eco-innovative mindset.
The overall message is that green skills will be needed “in all sectors and at all levels in the workforce as emerging economic activities create new (or renewed) occupations”.

LINKS

Greener Skills and Jobs is available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/industry-and-services/greener-skills-and-jobs_9789264208704-en (read-only, or download with OECD credentials). It is not yet available in French. Links to all the OECD Green Growth Studies are available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/fr/environment/oecd-green-growth-studies_22229523

Meeting skill needs for green jobs: Policy recommendations (November 2013) is a related document published by the International Labour Organization, which describes the complex international policy environment related to green vocational education. It was prepared for the G20 Working Group relating to Human Resources Development. It is available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/—ifp_skills/documents/publication/wcms_234463.pdf

Recommendations for an Equitable Green Growth Architecture

The Green Economy Barometer, released at a U.K. conference in February, outlines the existing structures, organizations and national policies that underlie the green economy, and identifies gaps which may be impeding equitable growth. The report differentiates between green growth, which has focused on attracting investment, and green economy, which requires policy reform to create a more equitable economic system. “A green economy should start where the majority of people are, tackling poverty and helping them to develop their assets and meet their needs and aspirations. So it should actively include the informal economy, small and medium enterprises, and locally owned and run solutions – not just big business”. The paper concludes: “For the shoots of the green economy to grow, mature and replace the current economic system, we need collective action to tackle some of the ‘fault-lines’ that are fragmenting the green economy landscape. We also need urgently to connect the macro objectives of a green economy transition to societal needs and aspirations”.

LINKS

Green Economy Barometer: Who is Doing What Where and Why? by the Green Economy Coalition and the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) is available at: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/16573IIIED.pdf

Summary of the report and discussions from the conference are at the International Institute for Environment and Development website at:
http://www.iied.org/support-for-green-economy-surges-crucial-gaps-remain, and a Reuters summary is at: http://www.trust.org/item/20140227105421

Controversial New Water Legislation Introduced in B.C.

The B.C. Government introduced Bill 18, the Water Sustainability Act, on March 11th. It updates the current legislation passed in 1909, and “will bring groundwater into the licensing system, and will expand government’s ability to protect fish and aquatic environments “. See http://engage.gov.bc.ca/watersustainabilityact/ for the legislation and all supporting documents.

In a November 2013 posting during the lengthy consultation phase, the government had outlined how the proposed changes would impact oil and gas development, including a pledge that “in completing the new Act we are looking closely at the Oil and Gas Activities Act and the Environmental Management Act to ensure that surface and groundwater are protected during hydraulic fracturing operations” (see http://engage.gov.bc.ca/watersustainabilityact/2013/11/14/blog-post-6-water-and-oil-gas-development/). Yet on March 19, Western Canada Wilderness Committee and the Sierra Club of B.C. went before the Supreme Court of B.C., alleging that Encana has systematically avoided the current water licensing regulations by applying to the provincial Oil and Gas Commission for repeated “short term” water permits for fracking (see http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/encana-s-water-permits-for-b-c-fracking-illegal-lawsuit-alleges-1.2578788).

The aspect of pricing commercial and industrial water use has been deferred by a period of further consultations; see the consultation paper, Pricing B.C.’s Water, at: http://engage.gov.bc.ca/watersustainabilityact/files/2014/03/Pricing-B.C.s-Water.pdf. Public comments will be accepted until April 8th.

BC Budget Announces Tax on LNG, Silent on Carbon Price

On February 18th, British Columbia tabled a provincial budget that touts its Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) development plans and offers some highly anticipated clarification on the sector’s tax structure.

Proposed taxation will include a 7% levy on the liquefaction process (the most emissions-intensive part of the process), which will take effect after capital costs are recovered. Until then, companies will pay only 1.5%. While companies argue the tax may render B.C. LNG uncompetitive, Sustainable Prosperity argues that the rate will likely be lower in practice. Adding to the confusion over just how much revenue will accrue to the province is uncertainty about future LNG prices, and whether the existing carbon tax will apply.

The budget did not address the expected impacts on B.C.’s emissions reductions wellhead-to-waterline-022014targets. According to Sustainable Prosperity, five proposed LNG plants will emit 73 megatons of carbon alone, along with emissions from fracking, transportation, combustion, and any additional plants. In a new report, the Pembina Institute argues that the jobs and revenue figures published by the government would require five to seven LNG terminals, which it claims could put B.C. LNG emissions on par with oil sands emissions by 2020.

While the budget rolls back public spending overall, it also includes an expansion of the provincial Carbon Neutral Capital Program (CNCP) which will draw the health and post-secondary education sectors into an existing scheme to establish a carbon-neutral school system. CNCP collects $25 per ton of greenhouse gas emissions from participating sectors, which is then invested in low-carbon capital upgrades.

See the B.C. Budget and Fiscal Plan, along with highlights and backgrounders, at: http://bcbudget.gov.bc.ca/2014/default.htm. For reaction, see “Carbon regime missing in action in BC’s new LNG tax regime” from Sustainable Prosperity at: http://www.sustainableprosperity.ca/blogpost87; “B.C. Budget 2014: About that LNG Prosperity Fund” Blog from Marc Lee of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives at: http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/policynote/2014/02/bc-budget-2014-about-lng-prosperity-fund. Also see Wellhead to Waterline: Opportunities to Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions from B.C.’s Proposed LNG Industry from the Pembina Institute at: http://www.pembina.org/pub/2524.

Nova Scotia Approves LNG Facility at Goldboro, with 40 Conditions

On March 21st, the Nova Scotia Minister of Environment gave his approval for an LNG plant and terminal which the company predicts will create up to 3,500 jobs during its construction and employ 200 full-time workers in the operational phase. The Minister followed the conclusions of a 3-person environmental panel which acknowledged “residual effects” on the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions, and damage to local fisheries, but concluded that the economic benefits outweighed these considerations. The project still needs approval by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board, and a final decision by the company, Pieridae Energy Canada. See the government press release and all documents relating to the project at: http://www.novascotia.ca/nse/ea/goldboro-lng.asp. See a Globe and Mail press report at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/energy-and-resources/nova-scotia-government-gives-conditional-okay-for-lng-plant/article17612971/.

Recommendations for Québec’s Next Energy Policy Emphasize Energy Efficiency, Support Pipelines

A 2-person commission appointed to review energy issues in Québec reported to the government in January 2014, generally recommending a change in direction to emphasize energy efficiency and limit new infrastructure investment. According to a report in the Montreal Gazette on March 2 (http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/Quebec+needs+energy+course+panel/9570190/story.html), the recommendations included: set a goal of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by 75 per cent by 2050; study the possibility of suspending phases 3 and 4 of the Romaine River hydroelectric project; stop or suspend wind, cogeneration and small-dam projects that have not yet been built; support TransCanada’s west-east oil pipeline, conditional on study by the province’s environmental review board; support Enbridge’s Line 9B oil pipeline; improve public transit; update the provincial building code to improve the energy efficiency of buildings; and support the construction of a natural-gas pipeline connection to the Gaz Métro network to replace heating oil with natural gas. The Energy Consultation website is at: http://consultationenergie.gouv.qc.ca/english/ (English version), and http://consultationenergie.gouv.qc.ca/ (French version). The report and briefs presented to the Commission are available only in French.

Fisheries in the News: Collaboration is Moving Newfoundland’s Cod Fishery to Sustainability

The Fishery Improvement Project (FIP) on the southern Newfoundland shore announced on March 13th that it has entered full assessment against the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard for sustainable and well-managed fisheries.

After the collapse of the cod fishery in the 1990’s, this is an historic milestone, and according to World Wildlife Fund Canada (WWF) President David Miller: “It demonstrates that good management and collaboration can lead to the recovery of cod populations – and that struggling fisheries can once again thrive, not only in Atlantic Canada but across the world”. The recovery of the fishery is indeed the result of extensive collaboration and co-operation- led by Icewater Seafoods Inc. and Ocean Choice International, partnering with WWF (formerly World Wildlife Federation) to manage the FIP, with additional financial support from the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, the Resources Legacy Fund, and High Liner. The Fish, Food and Allied Workers Union (FFAW) and Fisheries and Oceans Canada are also cited as key supporters.

Read the press release at WWF at: http://www.wwf.ca/newsroom/?14901/Newfoundland-cod-fishery-announces-milestone-sustainability-assessment. Read about the FFAW Stewardship Program at: http://www.ffaw.nf.ca/?Content=Science_Research/Fisheries_Stewardship_Program, and an overview of the WWF Conservation Program in Atlantic Canada at: http://www.wwf.ca/conservation/oceans/atlantic_canada/.

Commercial Fisheries Still on Hold in the Arctic

Although there is currently no commercial fishing in the Arctic, the rapidly warming waters may allow for one to develop. In 2012, scientists from 67 countries called for a moratorium on such fishing pending more research, to avoid damage to fish stocks. In February 2014, the five Arctic coastal countries – Canada, the United States, Russia, Denmark and Norway – agreed to avoid commercial fishing themselves and to work to include other countries in the agreement. In March, the European Parliament passed a resolution calling for protection of the High Arctic, prohibiting fishing, and prohibiting pollution from ships and oil rigs. See “Canada agrees to work to prevent fishing in High Arctic” on the CBC website at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/canada-agrees-to-work-to-prevent-fishing-in-high-arctic-1.2554332. As part of its extensive work on ocean conservation, The Pew Charitable Trust provides many studies on the Arctic at: http://www.pewtrusts.org/our_work_detail.aspx?id=606; documents on Ocean Conservation and overfishing are at: http://www.pewtrusts.org/our_work_category.aspx?id=134.

On its 20th Anniversary, Criticism of NAFTA for Environmental, Economic Damage

A new report from the Sierra Club, the Council of Canadians and others, condemns the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for failing to improve economic and environmental conditions for most Canadian, American, and Mexican citizens.

According to the report, exports from Canada to the U.S. increased by 200 percent from 1994 to 2008, yet wages stagnated. Further, NAFTA contract obligations for oil encouraged development of the oil sands, while alternative energy sectors suffered, and NAFTA restricted Canada’s ability to regulate oil sands emissions. Pollution increased in the U.S. due to growth in dirtier manufacturing sectors, although employment in American manufacturing dropped overall.

In Mexico, small farmers were unable to compete with large-scale, export-oriented intensive agriculture. Many failed in attempts to improve profits by converting carbon-sequestering forest to arable land. While the mining industry in Mexico did enjoy a boom, smallholders lost out to associated industrial pollution. Wages in the maquila manufacturing sector near the U.S. border simultaneously stagnated, even as operations and pollution levels grew.

Other environmental impacts noted by the report include a significant jump in North American greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable water use, and the rippling effects of NAFTA clauses that provide corporations with legal avenues to challenge environmental regulations, such as Lone Pine Resources’ ongoing lawsuit against Canada over the Québec fracking moratorium (see our previous report at: https://workandclimatechangereport.org/2013/11/22/fracking-company-suing-for-lost-profits-in-quebec/).

See NAFTA: 20 Years of Costs to Communities and the Environment at: http://www.sierraclub.ca/en/main-page/new-report-reveals-environmental-costs-north-american-free-trade-agreement-environmental-d, and “NAFTA Report Warns of Trade Deal Environmental Disasters” from the Huffington Post at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/11/nafta-environment_n_4938556.html.

Capacity for Climate Change Action Diminishes in Canada, Grows in the U.S.

More cuts to Environment Canada were made public with the release of the annual departmental Plans and Priorities document for 2014-2015 in March. Although almost all programs are targeted for reduction, the 69% cut to climate change programs between now and 2016/17 speaks volumes about the current government’s attitude to climate change. See Environment Canada Plans and Priorities 2014-15 document at: https://www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=024B8406-1. Read commentary at the Toronto Star at: http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/03/12/environment_canada_braces_for_belttightening.html, or at The Tyee at: http://thetyee.ca/News/2014/03/15/Environment-Canada-Cuts/.

Cuts to Statistics Canada are also on the books amidst talk of “alternative data sources”. In contrast, the U.S. White House announced on March 19th that “we are launching the Climate Data Initiative, an ambitious new effort bringing together extensive open government data and design competitions with commitments from the private and philanthropic sectors to develop data-driven planning and resilience tools for local communities….Data from NOAA, NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies will be featured on climate.data.gov, a new section within data.gov that opens for business today”. See http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/03/19/climate-data-initiative-launches-strong-public-and-private-sector-commitments.

Global Survey of National Climate and Energy Legisation Ranks Canada as a Laggard

A February report surveys the development of climate change and energy legislation in 66 countries which account for 88% of the world’s emissions. The survey, co-authored by the Global Legislators Organisation (GLOBE) and the Grantham Research Institute at the London School of Economics, finds that 62 of the 66 countries have passed, or are in the process of passing, significant legislation; the countries lagging are Venezuela, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Canada. China and Mexico are held up as examples of progress; Japan and Australia are judged to have regressed.

See the 700-page GLOBE Climate Legislation Study: A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 66 Countries (4th edition) at: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/publications/Policy/docs/Globe2014.pdf; the GLOBE website is at: http://www.globeinternational.org/. And, for a further review of Canadian policy initiatives, see Regulating Carbon Emissions in Canada: Climate Policy Year in Review and Trends, 2013 at: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2014/canadian_carbon_policy_review_2013.pdf. This annual review by the International Institute on Sustainable Development was released in February 2014, summarizing landmark policy initiatives and predicting issues to watch in 2014. For the coming year, it emphasizes the importance of provincial action, in the absence of central, federal leadership.

The Social Cost of Carbon Attacked and Defended

The Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) is an important analytical tool which estimates the economic harm caused by one additional metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. It has been used in the U.S. and Canada to evaluate the costs of activities that produce greenhouse gas emissions, and the benefits of policies that reduce those emissions. See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency webpage which lists the regulations which have used the SCC at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/economics/scc.html.

A review of the SCC is currently underway in the U.S., led by the Office of Management and the Budget (the public comments period closed on February 27, 2014). Inevitably, this has been controversial, with oil and gas interests leading the push to prohibit the use of the SCC, on the grounds that it is imprecise and inaccurate. A joint submission by the Environmental Defense Fund, Institute for Policy Integrity at New York University School of Law, Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Union of Concerned Scientists supports the use of the SCC and refutes the arguments of its critics; their statement is available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/global_warming/Joint-Comments-to-OMB.pdf. See the terms and links to the Technical document at: https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/01/27/2014-01605/technical-support-document-technical-update-of-the-social-cost-of-carbon-for-regulatory-impact.

Public Opinion on Climate Change Issues: North American and European

In March, Canada 2020 published key findings from polling, comparing U.S. and Canadian attitudes in 2013 and 2011. The results show that 81% of Canadians and 76% of Americans feel that humans have played a role in causing global warming. 77% of Canadians and 57% of Americans were “very concerned” or “somewhat concerned” about climate change. Canadian respondents ranked the importance of domestic policy priorities in the following order: #1: protect the environment (ranked 8.2), #2: strengthen economy and jobs (8.1), #3: show leadership on climate change (7.4), and #4: reduce taxes (6.3) (see http://canada2020.ca/publications/2013-canada-us-comparative-climate-opinion-survey/, or the complete results at: http://canada2020.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Canada-2020-Background-Paper-Climate-Poll-Key-Findings-March-3-2014.pdf).

The Canada 2020 poll surveyed attitudes to policies to promote renewable energy, and found that Canadians are more likely than Americans to support a carbon tax and are more willing to pay a premium for renewable energy. A new poll of Albertans commissioned by the Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, found that two-thirds of Albertans are willing to pay higher prices for electricity generated by wind and solar power (a majority believed that there are negative health effects related to burning coal) (Reported in the Edmonton Journal at: http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Poll+shows+most+Albertans+favour+renewable+energy+over+coal/9584222/story.html).

Contrast these North American attitudes with the responses from a survey reported by the European Commission on March 3rd. Data is provided for the EU, by country, and in some cases by socio-economic and demographic characteristics, with trends since the last survey in 2011. Amongst Europeans, 16% currently feel that climate change is the most important problem facing the world today and 50% feel that it is one of the three most important problems (in Sweden, 39% rank it as the top problem and 81% rank it as one of the top 3). When asked who bears the responsibility for tackling climate change, 48% of Europeans look to their national governments, 41% say with business and industry, and 25% consider themselves to have a personal responsibility for preventing climate change. 80% of European respondents agreed that fighting climate change and using energy more efficiently can boost the economy and jobs in the EU (see a summary at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-201_en.htm, and the full 97-page report at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_409_en.pdf).

American Scientists Frame Climate Change as a Risk Management Issue

In the war for public support for action against climate change, a new campaign from the prestigious American Association for the Advancement of Science was launched with the document: What we Know: The Reality, Risks and Response to Climate Change (at: http://whatweknow.aaas.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/AAAS-What-We-Know.pdf). From the AAAS press release: “Scientists have developed a solid understanding of how the climate is responding to the build-up of greenhouse gases, but they recognize the considerable uncertainty about the long-run impacts – especially potential economic damages. Economists understand how to create incentives to limit pollution production with maximum effect and minimum collateral damage, but crafting the appropriate response is a complex valuation process that requires quantifying those same uncertainties…To do so requires scientists and economists to work together, ask tough questions, and break the boundaries of their professional silos. That’s what’s this initiative aims to do”.