Dutch Government Announces it will appeal the landmark Urgenda Climate Change Decision

As reported in the June WCR  , the courts of the Netherlands ruled that the government  has a legal duty of care to its citizens to improve the environment, and ordered the government to cut the country’s greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% by 2020. However, on September 1, the Dutch government announced it would appeal the decision.  Environmentalists around the world have been inspired by the implications for their own legal systems: see “Around the world in five climate lawsuits”  . A sampling of thought from Canada: Dutch climate court win – What does it mean for Canada? (June 26) at and Dutch Judicial Lessons for Canada (West Coast Environmental Law ); What the Dutch Climate Court win means for Canada   (Ecojustice); Exciting developments in Climate Change Law (Alberta Environmental Law Centre); “Are countries legally required to protect their citizens from climate change?”  (Corporate Knights , July 28). And most recently, the reports sparked by a public lecture in Toronto by Roger Cox, Urgenda lawyer: “Dutch climate lawsuit could work in Canada: lawyer”  in The Tyee (Sept. 15); and “Canadian Courts could face Climate Change cases in wake of Dutch ruling”  Globe and Mail (Sept. 14).

From Australia: Could Australians sue for climate action ?.  For a U.S. viewpoint, see The Enormous Significance For Climate Law and Ethics Of a Dutch Court’s Order Requiring the Netherlands To Reduce Its GHG Emissions by 25% by 2020  at the Ethics and Climate website. From a legal viewpoint, The Urgenda decision: Balanced constitutionalism in the face of climate change? (Oxford University Press).

Watch the Urgenda Foundation website for news of the appeal by the Dutch government.

U.S. Updates the Social Cost of Carbon to $36 Per Ton

On July 2, the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) set the new 2015 Social Cost of Carbon at $36/ton of CO2, representing the cost of the damage to society caused by one ton of carbon dioxide emission.   At the same time, the Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon released its formal response to the comments and letters submitted during the most recent public comment period in 2013 in   Response to Comments: Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866  .

Climate Change Issues in the Canadian Federal Election

Canada is in the midst of a federal government election, with voting on October 19, 2015.  The climate change issue was stated early, by Jeff Rubin and David Suzuki in “Canada’s Carbon Moment has arrived”   . From their article:  “Mr. Harper’s carbon-fuelled energy agenda hasn’t worked out, and that’s put the Canadian economy in precarious shape. But this critical moment of economic and environmental crisis is an opportunity for Canada to confront the reality, costs and urgency of climate change, and find solutions that will both reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and contribute to the economy. This is a challenge that every party in the current campaign should address.”

leap manifesto coverOn September 15, prominent environmentalists stepped into the campaign with the release of the LEAP Manifesto Canada: A Call for Canada Based on Caring for the Earth and One Another. The Manifesto puts Aboriginal rights at the forefront of the climate debate, calls for energy democracy and a bottom-up revival of democracy, declares austerity “ a fossilized form of thinking that has become a threat to life on earth”, and enumerates clean energy projects and means to pay for them. LEAP is supported by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, which published a companion report, We Can Afford the Leap , offering more detail about specific sources of revenue to accomplish the Manifesto goals .   The Canadian Union of Public Employees has also endorsed the Manifesto.  An article in The Guardian is titled: “The Leap Manifesto isn’t Radical: It’s a way out of Canada’s head-in-the-sand Politics ” .

Some websites dedicated to climate issues in the election: Green PacEnvironmental Laws Matter  , 350.org Campaign , or Anyone but Harper, a guide to strategic voting to defeat the Harper government.

RGGI Carbon Market in the Northeast : An Example of Decoupled Growth

A July 2015 report from the Acadia Center states that the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)  has allowed the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States to achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions while providing economic benefits through the reinvestment of the proceeds from the auctions of carbon allowances.   Since 2009, when RGGI began, the emissions in RGGI states dropped by 35% , compared to 12% in non-RGGI states. At the same time, the rate of economic growth in RGGI states was 21.2%,   compared to 18.2% in non-RGGI states. Read RGGI: A Model Program for the Power Sector -2015 Update

Energy East Pipeline is not worth the Risks

Energy East Pipeline is Not Worth the Risks: The Ontario Energy Board released the conclusions from an 18-month study and consultation on August 13. A Review of the Economic Impact of Energy East on Ontario  considered the impacts on tax revenue and local employment, and concluded that “there is an imbalance between the economic and environmental risks of the project and the expected benefits for Ontarians”.   The greatest concerns were expressed about potential gas shortages as the pipeline switches from transporting natural gas to oil, proximity to important waterways, and the need for up-to-date technology to prevent and mitigate spills. Employment impacts were difficult to estimate because of lack of data from the Trans Canada proposal, but were considered minimal, especially in Northern Ontario.   The final report was prepared by researchers at the Mowat Centre and University of Toronto; consultants’ reports and submissions are available online at the Consultation website, including the Canada’s Building Trades Unions submission.

The Conservation Council of New Brunswick describes the natural environment and thriving fishery and tourism industry in its August report, Tanker Traffic and Tar Balls: What TransCanada’s Energy East Pipeline means for the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine . The report cites the dangers to whales increased noise and traffic in already busy shipping lanes, as well as the greater danger of an oil spill. Further, it cites research that states that oil dispersants can by 52 times more toxic than spilled oil to certain marine species. It concludes with 9 recommendations for further consultation, research, and environmental protection legislation.

The Council of Canadians also exposed the dangers of Energy East oil spills to waterways across Canada in a 2014 report,  Energy East: Where Oil meets Water.

Green Growth and Climate Justice Considered

A September essay published by the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) presents a European approach to the two currently prevailing paradigms in the discussion of the low-carbon transition: “ green growth”, described as essentially a neo-Keynsian market-based approach where green jobs of high quality are the goal, and the “prosperity without growth” approach, which is less about quantifying new green jobs and more about changing the nature of the jobs and altering the conception and experience of work. Towards a Social-ecological Transition. Solidarity in the Age of Environmental Challenge concludes with “Ten Proposals for a social-ecological transition”, which include: Re-think working time; Develop rights for the transition; Measure the quality of new jobs; Embark on the third tax revolution; Develop local social-ecological indicators and policies.

Unions demand Just Transition and Climate Justice at COP21

The Trade Uicftu septembernion Climate Summit  was held in Paris on September 14th and 15th, organized by the International Trade Union Confederation. It included a session on Alliances: Walking Together and More, presented by Canadians Jerry Dias, (President of Unifor), Naomi Klein, (author of This Changes Everything), and Hassan Yussuff, (President of the Canadian Labour Congress), as well as Kumi Naidoo, (CEO of Greenpeace International). The Summit issued three topline demands for the Paris Agreement  , calling on negotiators at COP21 to: “put back the language of just transition that has been stripped from the draft agreement; raise ambition before 2020 and invest in the potential of jobs and climate action and commit to a binding review of effort; support the most vulnerable with the promised financial commitments.”

Job Impacts of Infrastructure, Transit, Clean Energy

JOB IMPACTS OF TRANSIT, INFRASTRUCTURE, CLEAN ENERGY: The Economic Benefits of Public Infrastructure Spending in Canada  released by the Broadbent Institute on September 15 includes transit in its definition of public infrastructure – along with highways, and water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. It concludes that a public infrastructure program can help an investment-led economic expansion. Employment impacts vary over short-term and long-term, but the report estimates a short-term job multiplier effect of 9.4 jobs generated per million dollars spent. The study concludes that   “while employment gains may be limited, businesses are more productive and competitive, and workers earn higher real wages: up 0.4–0.6 per cent a year on average”.

The Benefits of Transit in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Benefit-Cost Studies concludes that jobs and economic stimulus are among the largest benefit categories from transit investments, not only in urbanized areas but in small urban and rural areas also. The report recommends that greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and other important but undervalued transit benefits categories should be considered in future studies.

A brief report released in August by the Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy at the University of California, Berkeley estimates the jobs created from California’s renewable energy investments from 2003 through 2014, and forecasts job creation between 2015 and 2030 as the state works to meet its 50% renewables portfolio standard (RPS). Job Impacts of California’s Existing and Proposed Renewables Portfolio Standard includes jobs related to the construction, but not maintenance and operation, of renewable energy facilities.

In June, the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) jointly released a 2-volume report which examines the policy frameworks needed for development of large-scale renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Global Green Growth: Clean Energy Industrial Investment and Expanding Job Opportunities (Volume 1 )  presents Overall Findings. Volume 2 assesses the employment impacts of the developments in Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, South Africa, and the Republic of Korea.

How Green are Electric Vehicles?

According to an article by Carla Lipsig Mumme and Caleb Goods, “an EV powered by average European electricity production is likely to reduce a vehicle’s global warming potential by about 20% over its life cycle. This is not insignificant, but it is nowhere near a zero-emission option”. “The Battery Revolution is exciting, but Remember they Pollute too”  in The Conversation (June 2) also raises a bigger question: “For a technology to be seriously considered ‘green,’ the processes by which the tech is produced and the ways in which it operates, must also be ‘green.’” The authors then discuss the detrimental health consequences of the mining and manufacture of lithium ion batteries, which is the focus of a spin-off article in the National Observer, “ Your green Car could cause Black Rain in China”  .

Yet there are emission savings to be made, according to researchers from the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, who released the results of their investigation into Canadian consumer attitudes to electric vehicles in July.   Electrifying Vehicles: Insights From The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Study states that “With today’s electricity grids, usage of PEVs can cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80—98% in British Columbia, around 45% in Alberta, and 58—70% in Ontario.”

In August, Quebec, California, and The Netherlands announced the launch of the International Zero-Emission Vehicle Alliance (ZEV Alliance) to accelerate global adoption of electric vehicles. The press release states uses the term “zero emission vehicles”, and states that the number of ZEVs registered in Quebec has increased by 134 percent over the last 16 months, thanks largely to government incentives and a well-developed public charging infrastructure.

The Green Economy includes Women and the Services Sector

A newly-released Special Issue of Women and Environments International Magazine (Winter 2014/2015) is devoted to Women and Work in a Warming World (W4) . Co-editors Marjorie Griffin Cohen and Patricia Perkins state: “it is crucial that governments and policy makers (and even environmentalists) broaden the view of what would constitute a ‘green economy’ to include a greater emphasis on care work and the services sectors. This would shift the typical policy focus from an emphasis on cleaning up dirty industries (which of course needs to be done), to including and promoting a more rational society designed to meet people’s fundamental needs: physical, political and social well-being. If a ‘green economy’ meant not just cleaner energy and transportation, but structural sustainability, women’s work would be clearly situated as central in bringing about this transition.” The issue articles include “Opportunities and Constraints for Women in the Renewable Energy Sector in India”, “Gender in Government Actions on Climate Change and Work: the U.S. example”, “Are There Jobs for Women in Green Job Creation?” (re Canada), and “Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity?”.

Highlights of Climate and Energy Policy Changes from Summer 2015:

Alberta: The Climate Change Advisory Panel was appointed and a consultation process begun, based on the Climate Leadership Discussion Document . The Pembina Institute issued a backgrounder, Opportunities to Improve Alberta’s climate strategy (Aug. 21)   and convened a Alberta Climate Summit on September 9  including a variety of stakeholders.

In late summer, a Royalty Review Advisory Panel was appointed to examine and lead public discussion concerning royalties for crude oil and liquids, natural gas, and oil sands.

British Columbia: A review of the Climate Leadership Plan began in July, with the release of a Discussion Paper. In December 2015, a draft Plan will be released for public comment, with a final Climate Leadership Plan promised for Spring 2016. Also in July, a consultation period began re proposed regulations under the Greenhouse Gas Industrial Reporting and Control Act , expected to come into force in Fall 2015.

In a special session of the Legislature in July, the B.C. government passed controversial legislation which sets the terms for the $36 billion Pacific Northwest LNG project at Lelu Island.

British Columbia, as a member of the Pacific Coast Collaborative (PCC), joined with California, Oregon, and Washington, to launch the West Coast Electric Fleets initiative , “a toolkit for public and private fleet managers to quickly assess opportunities for ZEVs and access useful incentives and resources to assist with procurement.”

Nova Scotia and British Columbia signed a Memorandum of Understanding on July 21, pledging to share research and technology related to tidal energy.

Nova Scotia discontinued its Community Feed-in Tariff (COMFIT) program for local renewable projects on August 6. A DeSmog blog article provides background and details.   The government promises a new electricity policy, including for renewables, in Fall 2015.

 

Ontario: In July, Ontario and Quebec jointly hosted the Climate Summit of the Americas, which resulted in the signing of a Climate Action Statement    by Ontario and 22 other states and regions.

Feeling the Heat: Greenhouse Gas Progress Report 2015  was released by the Acting Environmental Commissioner on July 7, stating that, although Ontario met its GHG reduction targets for 2014, it is unlikely to achieve its 2020 targets with the current policies in place.

Ontario Climate Change Lab: Solutions for   Ontario’s Climate Challenge  reports on a one-day multi-stakeholder workshop that produced a series of actionable recommendations for the provincial government to include in its climate change strategy.

Quebec: On September 11, Quebec and Ontario signed Memoranda of Agreement regarding increased trade in electricty, and collaboration on the cap and trade system currently under development in Ontario. They also committed to attend COP21 in Paris, to which end, the government of Quebec, on September 17, proposed Canada’s most ambitious target for greenhouse gas emissions reduction – 37.5 per cent below 1990 levels by 2030. The proposal follows the recommendations of the Climate Change Advisory panel , tabled in the Legislatureon the 17th. (in French only).

In August, Quebec, California, and The Netherlands announced the launch of the International Zero-Emission Vehicle Alliance (ZEV Alliance) to accelerate global adoption of electric vehicles. The press release states that the number of ZEVs registered in Quebec has increased by 134 percent over the last 16 months, thanks largely to government incentives and a well-developed public charging infrastructure.

Atlantic Provinces and U.S. Governors : Adopted a regional target of shrinking carbon pollution by 35% – 45% below 1990 levels by 2030  at the 39th annual meeting of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP).

And around the World:

Australia:  Bipartisan agreement brought about the new Renewable Energy Target legislation  on June 23, after an 18 month review. A new GHG reduction target of 26-28 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030 was announced on August 11, and is included in the Australian government INDC submission to the UNFCC in advance of the Paris climate talks.  The New Scientist  compares this to the U.S. pledge of 41 per cent by 2030, and the UK by 48 per cent (converting to Australia’s 2005 baseline year).  The  Climate Action Tracker website analyses the goals  and ranks them “inadequate”.

At the end of June, the Australian Climate Roundtable  was formed through the alliance of major Australian business, union, research, environment, investor and social groups, including the Australian Conservation Foundation, the Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Industry Group, the Business Council of Australia, The Climate Institute, the Energy Supply Association of Australia, the Investor Group on Climate Change and WWF Australia.

On September 14th came the stunning news that Tony Abbott had been replaced as Prime Minister by Malcolm Turnbull. However,  the Australian Broadcasting Corp. reported on September 15 that Turnbull has signaled no change to Australia’s climate policies.

China :   China submitted its climate action plan to the UNFCC on June 30,   vowing to peak its emissions by 2030 at the latest, to cut its carbon emissions per unit of GDP to 60-65 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, to increase renewable and nuclear power to 20 percent of the country’s energy portfolio, and to increase its forest cover by 4.5 billion cubic meters from 2005 levels by 2030.

European Union:  The EU restructured its Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) as part of the renewal of its Energy Union Strategy .The European Commission announced changes to the Emission Trading Scheme on July 15 . Under the new plan, only 50 economic sectors (including heavy industries such as steel and cement manufacturing) will receive free allowances, down from the current 177.

France: The Energy Transition for Green Growth legislation was approved on July 22, with far-reaching provisions: a goal to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% between 1990 and 2030 ; to halve the country’s energy usage by 2050, with a reduced share of fossil fuels in energy production, a cap on nuclear power at 63.2 gigawatts and a goal of 32% of energy production from renewables , and a four-fold increase of the carbon tax on fossil fuel use, to €56 per ton in 2020 and €100 in 2030.

The Netherlands: On Sept. 1, the Dutch government announced it will appeal the Courts’ June decision in the landmark Urgenda case.

United Kingdom:  The U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change announced surprising cuts to its renewable energy programs, including solar PV, biomass conversion, and a consultation re changes to the Feed-in-tariff program. Cuts to subsidies to off-shore wind farms had been announced in June  . As a result, “UK drops out of top 10 renewable energy ranking for first time”  according to the latest quarterly report of EY consultants on September 16. Meanwhile, fracking    continues to gain government favour in the U.K., with the third of a series of task force reports released on September 17. And on September 17, the U.K. government announced that Prime Minister David Cameron has appointed a former consultant to major oil and gas companies as his key adviser on energy and environment policy heading into the U.N. Paris climate talks.

This, in spite of the fact that 24 of Britain’s learned scientific societies issued a joint communique on July 23, urging the British government to curb greenhouse gas emissions through drastic reductions in the burning of fossil fuels, and a shift towards energy efficiency and renewable energy.

Two substantial reports on climate change risks and policy were tabled in the House of Commons over the summer: Reducing emissions and preparing for climate change: 2015 Progress Report to Parliament   (June 30)  ; and Climate Change: A Risk Assessment .

Updates on Climate Change Action in Cities:

Accelerating Low-Carbon Development in the World’s Cities    was released by the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate on September 8. It estimates financial savings of $17 trillion by 2050 if cities around the world invest in low-carbon policies such as public transport, building efficiency, and waste management. A summary at Sustainable Cities Collective    points out the positive impact of cooperative relationships at the municipal level – such as the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), and the Compact of Mayors, and calls for additional support at the federal level. On September 17, CDP (formerly the Climate Disclosure Project) and AECOM released their global survey of cities , showing that Latin American and European cities are the least reliant on fossil fuels for their electricity. In Canada, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) recently released the Green Municipal Fund (GMF) 2014–2015 Annual Report , which gives an overview of funded green projects using a triple bottom line approach. And the City of Toronto has launched a new 2-year initiative, Transform TO  to consult with citizens to arrive at new policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050.

Clean Energy Advances in the U.S. with Landmark Clean Power Plan

On August 3, President Obama released the finalized Clean Power Plan , which goes even further than the draft version in requiring the states to source 28 percent of their power from renewables by 2030. The U.S. Congressional Research Service published EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Highlights of the Final Rule August 14, 2015  to summarize the document and highlight the differences from the Proposed Rules. The National Resources Defense Council also released an Issue Brief, Understanding the Clean Power Plan  , and stated “The plan represents the most important step the United States can take right now to combat climate change and help spur climate action around the globe.” Labor Network for Sustainability provides a union view in The EPA Clean Power Plan, Jobs and Labor  , and The EPA’s Clean Power Plan: How Unions and Allies can protect affected workers  , both of which discuss the role labor unions can play in lobbying for transition funds and programs for workers in the fossil fuel industry. At the federal level, LNS envisions federal Just Transition programs, modeled after the Base Realignment and Closing Commission (BRAC) initiatives operated by the Department of National Defense when military bases were closed.   At the state level, the report urges unions to build alliances among environmentalists, labor, and environmental justice advocates to lobby for Clean Power Plans which incorporate climate justice objectives.

See also: “The Very Real Impact of the Clean Power Plan” (Aug. 14)    in Corporate Knights magazine, which refutes the negative reaction by Michael Grunwald of Politico , and concludes that “… to dismiss it as insignificant ignores the data and the political context. As the country sees the health and economic benefits of an accelerating movement toward renewable energy, we can expect greater openness to more aggressive actions. We are engaged in a process.” That’s clear from the timeline published by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute.

The WCR published an earlier summary of studies of the employment impacts of the CPP, including the widely cited report by Josh Bivens.

Further, the Obama administration announced initiatives at the National Clean Energy Summit in Las Vegas on August 24.  Highlights: an additional $1 billion in loan guarantee authority for distributed energy projects using innovative technology, such as rooftop solar and methane capture for oil and gas wells; expansion of the residential clean energy financing program, which makes loans to homeowners who want to purchase home energy improvements; and $24 million to 11 solar research projects.

Pension Fund Managers Get It

Climate Change and the Fiduciary Duties of Pension Fund Trustees in Canada    was written by the Toronto law firm Koskie Minsky LLP for SHARE (Shareholder Association for Research and Education)  . Released on September 8, it examines the legal responsibilities of pension trustees, with an emphasis on British Columbia, and considers the interface with public policy and governments . Concurrently, SHARE and NEI Investments issued a public letter to the Premier of Alberta, stating “We encourage the Government of Alberta to keep carbon pricing as a central tenet of future carbon policy.” It also urges the government to diversity the economy and to invest in renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives. The letter was signed by institutional investors and related bodies representing over $4.6trillion in assets under management, most notably the British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, the B.C. Teachers Federation, California State Teachers’ Retirement System, the Pension Plan for the Employees of the Ontario Public Service Employees Union, Pension Plan for the Employees of the Public Service Alliance of Canada, and investment and financial officials from churches around the world and across denominations.

Pension fund managers have lots to think about, as business-oriented reports continue to warn about the financial risks of climate change and stranded assets. The Koskie Minsky paper acknowledges the influence of the analysis of Mercer Investment Consulting , Investing in a time of Climate Change (2015), and an earlier 2011 Mercer report. Publications over Summer 2015 include: Carbon Asset Risk Discussion Framework   (published by World Resources Institute and the UNEP Finance, partly funded by the Bank of America Foundation, Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase Bank N.A., and Wells Fargo Foundation); The Cost of Inaction: Recognising the value at risk from climate change ( from the Economist Intelligence Unit); and Energy Darwinism II: Why a Low Carbon Future Doesn’t Have to Cost the Earth , (from  a division of Citi Bank).

A recent report by Trillium Asset Management found that California’s public pension funds, CalPERS and CalSTRS, had incurred a massive loss of more than $5 billion last year from their holdings in the top 200 fossil fuel companies. Legislation passed the California Assembly on September 2  to force CalPERS and CalSTRS to divest their holdings in coal; Governor Brown has until October to sign the Bill.

Better Health for Workers: Green Offices, Factories and Hospitals can Help, but What is the Future for Outdoor Workers?

“Green Buildings and Health”appears in the September issue of Current Environmental Health Reports, and investigates indoor air quality in offices, factories, and hospitals, as well as homes. The authors, from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, state that evidence points to superior air quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, resulting in direct health benefits for the occupants. They propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading “Health Performance Indicators” for use in future studies of buildings and health.

Concerning outdoor workers, a study led by Sir David King, the U.K. Foreign Secretary’s Special Representative for Climate Change, is relevant. Climate Change: A Risk Assessment  is a broad study, but includes discussion of heat stress, and the elevated risk which workers face. Using the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety thresholds regarding Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT),  , the King report defines an environment as ‘too hot to work’ if the average daily maximum WBGT is 36°C or more for a month. The report states that climate change will likely increase the probability of crossing that temperature threshold in North India, Southeast China, and Southeast USA.

Other studies examining the impact of climate change on human health were released over the summer:

“Unraveling the Relationship between Climate Change and Health “  in the New York Times (July 14); “Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health” in The Lancet (June)(registration required); and Climate Change and Public Health, a book edited by Barry S. Levy and Jonathan A. Patz, available from Oxford University Press  . It has a chapter on occupational health. Finally, “Health and climate benefits of different energy-efficiency and renewable energy choices” was published in Nature Climate Change (August 31) The study by Harvard’s Center for Health and the Global Environment showed that “energy efficiency measures and low-carbon energy sources can save a region between $5.7 million and $210 million annually, based on the accepted dollar value of human life. Those benefits depend on the type of low-carbon energy involved and the population density of the area surrounding a coal-fired power plant whose emissions are reduced by a clean energy project.”