Outside of the United States, it seems that there is general recognition that the coal industry is in decline, and that this demands a planned response to transition both the energy mix and the communities and workers. The Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) in Paris, for example, is coordinating a Coal Transitions Project, bringing together researchers from Australia, South Africa, Germany, Poland, India and China, to publish reports examining past experiences in the six countries in March 2017, culminating with a global report and a consideration of the future of coal by 2018.
Australia’s coal production has a long and highly-political history – summarized in “The long-term future of Australian coal is drying up” in The Conversation (October 2015), or “Australia’s Addiction to Coal” in the New York Times (November 14, 2016) . Amidst this highly political climate, the current government established a Senate Inquiry into the Retirement of Coal Fired Power Stations in October 2016, to examine “the transition from ageing, high-carbon coal generation to clean energy” in light of the Paris Agreement commitments on emissions reductions , and the Agreement’s provisions re just transitions. The deadline for the Inquiry’s Final Report has been extended to the end of March; an Interim Report was released at the end of November 2016, with Chapter 4 devoted to options for managing the transition for workers and communities. Submissions to the Senate committee are here, listed by author. Three noteworthy examples: the Australian Psychology Association reviews the “flow-on psychosocial impacts on individuals, families and whole communities” of mass closures, but argues for the possibility of building “vibrant, diversified, energy sustainable communities with good local jobs, and capable of lifting the prospects of all citizens”. The submission states: “Community-led transitions that identify the community’s needs and resources, involve the community in the formulation and control of change, and strengthen the local people’s capacity for action, are critically important components of planned transitions. “” The Appalachian Transition and Renew Appalachia are cited as models of community building.
The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) submitted a thorough, 30-page proposal: Sharing the challenges and opportunities of a clean energy economy: Policy discussion paper. A Just Transition for coal-fired electricity sector workers and communities. Amongst the recommendations: establish a “national independent statutory authority”, named Energy Transition Australia (ETA), within the environment and energy portfolio, and reporting to the Minister and parliament. The ETA would be overseen by a tripartite advisory board comprised of industry, unions and government, with a mandate to oversee a planned and orderly closure of Australia’s coal fired power stations; “manage an industry-wide multi-employer pooling and redeployment scheme, where existing workers would have an opportunity to be redeployed to remaining power stations or low-emissions generators; and develop a labour adjustment package to support workers obtain new decent and secure jobs, including by providing funding for workers to access job assistance support, retraining, early retirement and travel and relocation assistance.”
Finally, a submission by Professor John Wiseman of the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute lists and synthesizes many of the recommendations from recent Just Transition publications, including Life After Coal: Pathways to a Just and Sustainable Transition for the Latrobe Valley (October 2016). This report by the Environment department of the province of Victoria focuses on the four Hazelwood coal-fired power plants, scheduled to close as early as April 2017.