The Pembina Institute recently compiled three case studies related to energy development in Alberta, in an effort to document the adverse effects on individuals, communities and regions that result from weak environmental laws or regulatory enforcement. The Environmental Law Centre in Alberta also published a series of reports in late 2016, including a module, Substantive Environmental Rights , which discusses environmental rights as a human right. Since 2014, the Blue Dot campaign, led by the David Suzuki Foundation and Ecojustice , has been advocating for environmental rights to be enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.
Now, from the Pembina Institute comes The Right to a Healthy Environment: Documenting the need for environmental rights in Canada. It consists of: Case Study #1: Individual impacts of intensive hydraulic fracturing activity in rural Alberta ; #2 Community impacts of air pollution in urban central Alberta (related to coal-fired electricity plants), and #3 Regional impacts of oilsands development in northern Alberta (which examines the rights of First Nations).
In Nova Scotia, the Nova Scotia Environmental Rights Working Group of the East Coast Environmental Law Association released their proposed and innovative Nova Scotia Environmental Bill of Rights on April 21 2017. The bill states that the people “have a right to a healthy and ecologically balanced environment”, and that the “primary responsibility” to protect and conserve that environment falls to the province. It also states that “there is a history of environmental racism in Nova Scotia that has disproportionately and negatively affected historically marginalized, vulnerable, and economically disadvantaged individuals, groups or communities, particularly Indigenous People and African Nova Scotians”. The bill is based on the Precautionary Principle, the Polluter Pays Principle, the Non-Regression Principle, the Intergenerational Equity Principle, and the Principle of Environmental Justice and Equity. Nova Scotians go to the polls in a general election on May 30; a guide to the policy positions of the Liberal, Conservative and NDP parties is here at the CBC website. According to the Ecology Action Centre in Halifax, the provincial NDP party has pledged to support an Environmental Bill of Rights .