Students in approximately 95 towns and cities across Canada went on strike from school on May 3, continuing their Fridays for Future campaign . As was the case after the huge March 15 demonstrations , mainstream press coverage was limited, but included a front-page story in the Sudbury Star . Other coverage: Corner Brook Newfoundland ; Regina Saskatchewan , Edmonton , and Vancouver, where an article in The Straight (May 3) summarizes the strike in Vancouver and notes others across Canada and the world. In Halifax, CBC News reported that 400 students marched, despite threats of suspension from at least one high school . In “Thousands march for action on climate change in Montreal as city braces for flooding”, the CBC reports that intergenerational demonstrations were held in Quebec on April 27, and states “Quebec’s largest unions took part in similar marches in Sherbrooke, Trois-Rivières, Rimouski, Rouyn-Noranda, Alma, Gaspé, Mont-Laurier and Ottawa.”
Youth are driven by fear: The National Observer has launched a new series on Youth, Parents and the Climate Crisis with “Climate strikes and the youth mental health crisis” (May 2). Similarly, “Meet the millennials grieving for the future of planet Earth” describes ecological grief circles in Montreal . The words of a sampling of youth leaders are revealing in the interviews from “Canadian Teens Told Us Why They’re Striking Over Climate Change” (May 2) in Vice .
What’s Next? The Federal Election and a Green New Deal: Students say they will continue their school strikes, and in addition, some are now joining the political fight, despite being too young to vote in many cases. Climate Strike Canada has posted an Open Letter and online petition which lists their demands:
“We, as citizens, therefore call upon all political parties and politicians to create and commit to a science-based and human rights focused Emergency Plan for Climate Justice that limits global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
We, as citizens, pledge to vote only for political parties and politicians that include the following demands in their Emergency Plan for Climate Justice.
- Bold Emissions Reductions Targets
- Separation of Oil and State
- A Just Transition
- Environmental rights
- Indigenous rights
- Conservation of Biodiversity
- Protection for Vulnerable Groups
Several youth organizations are among the 67 groups who announced for a Green New Deal for Canada on May 6, launching another political movement to fight for climate change action in the coming election. The Energy Mix provides a summary of these new political campaigns in “Canadian Coalitions’ Election Platforms Call For Faster Action On Climate” (May 7). Common Dreams also describes the new group in “‘The Pact for a Green New Deal’: Visionary Roadmap From Canadian Coalition Launched” (May 6).
On May 8, General Motors Canada and Unifor held a joint press conference and issued a statement announcing that GM will invest $170 million to save approximately 300 of the 2,600 union jobs at the Oshawa Ontario manufacturing facility, slated for closure by the end of 2019 as part of the North American restructuring announced in November 2018.
After a vigorous and high profile union campaign against the closure, an “Oshawa Transformation Agreement” has been reached, including:
- A $170 million investment by GM to convert the plant from vehicle assembly to stamping, related sub-assembly, and “other miscellaneous activities for GM and other auto industry customers.”
- Part of the Oshawa Plant property will be converted into a test track for autonomous and advanced technology vehicles, to support GM Canada’s existing Canadian Technical Centre , in particular its Oshawa and Markham campuses where the company develops software and hardware for Autonomous Vehicle Systems, Embedded Controls, Active Safety Systems and Infotainment.
- The company will also donate the three-acre Fenelon Park and the 87-acre McLaughlin Bay wildlife preserve to the City of Oshawa “for the permanent benefit of all its citizens.”
But what about the workers?
A separate Jobs Transition Backgrounder states:
- GM Canada will offer special relocations to Oshawa employees for jobs at the St. Catharines propulsion plant or the Woodstock Distribution Centre;
- GM will offer enhanced retirement packages to retirement-eligible Oshawa Assembly employees “including vouchers toward the purchase of new GM vehicles, a benefit that will support both retiring employees and GM dealerships in Durham Region and surrounding areas.”
- In June 2019, GM Canada, Unifor and the Ontario government will open a Jobs Action Centre in Oshawa, offering personalized transition counselling, a skills / jobs matching database and “other supports.” Durham College, the local community college, will support the Job Action Centre with a dedicated jobs portal and several job fairs planned for 2019.
- Durham College, Centennial College, and Trent University Durham will offer training tailored to regional and GTA-based partner employers.
- “GM Canada will offer training support for qualified Oshawa Assembly hourly employees.” (no further details stated in the public release).
Unifor Local 222 , which represents the workers at the Oshawa plant, have called a meeting on May 9 to inform the membership about the resolution of their grievance against the company, which sought to increase incentives and severance packages.
In better news for Ontario’s auto industry: Starting in 2022, Toyota will begin to produce the luxury Lexus NX at its Cambridge plant, in both gasoline and hybrid versions . ( Cambridge currently produces of the mid-size luxury Lexus RX and RX hybrid). According to a report in the Hamilton Spectator : “Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Deputy Ontario Premier Christine Elliott, and a host of local mayors and dignitaries were at the Fountain Street facility Monday afternoon to announce the plant had secured the right to make the company’s Lexus NX gas and hybrid compact SUVs starting in 2022. The news came almost a year after the federal government partnered with the province — at the time led by Kathleen Wynne and the Liberals — to each invest $110 million in the company as part of an overall investment of $1.4 billion by Toyota.”
The U.S. Solar Industry Diversity Study 2019 was released by The Solar Foundation , in partnership with the Solar Energy Industries Association on May 6, reflecting a growing industry awareness of the need to promote inclusion. The 2019 study is based on survey responses from 377 employers and 398 employees in the winter of 2018, and reports on job satisfaction, career paths and progression, and wages.
- Among the senior executives reported in the survey, 88% are white and 80% are men.
- Three of the top five recruitment methods rely on professional and personal networks – putting minority applicants at a disadvantage to be hired (Only 28% of Hispanic , Latino, and African American respondents reported that they found their jobs through a referral or by word of mouth, compared to 44% of white respondents).
- There is a 26% gender wage gap across all position levels. 37% of men earn in the range of $31 to $74 per hour, compared to only 28% of women. The median wage reported for men was $29.19, and for women it was only $21.62.
The full report is available here (registration required). This is the second Diversity Report, but the first, in 2017, is no longer available online. An accompanying Best Practices Guide is a brief guide aimed at HR managers to encourage diversity and inclusion programs. A summary of the report appears in Think Progress .
Other reports which confirm the need for more diversity in the solar industry:
Solar Empowers Some (February 2019) focused on the state of diversity and inclusion in Baltimore and Washington D.C.
Advancing inclusion through clean energy jobs (April 2019) by the Brookings Institution goes beyond just the solar industry to include all clean energy and energy efficiency occupations. It reports that fewer than 20 percent of workers are women, and less than 10 percent are black, confirming that the clean energy economy workforce is older, dominated by male workers, and lacks racial diversity compared to all occupations nationally. This report, importantly, also documents skills and educational requirements, and is written in the context of labour market issues for a transition to a clean economy.
We have little comparable research in Canada. As reported in the WCR previously, Bipasha Baruah at Western University in London researches the gender issue in the renewable energy industry, and in 2016 presented a report, Creating and Optimizing Employment Opportunities for Women in the Clean Energy Sector in Canada, at Imagining Canada’s Future, an SSHRC Knowledge Synthesis Symposium at the University of Calgary.
With implications across the country, the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal handed down a 3-2 decision on May 3, ruling that the federal Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act (GGPPA) falls within federal government’s “National Concern” constitutional power. The Saskatchewan Association for Environmental Law has compiled all the legal submission documents here ; the EcoFiscal Commission provides a summary of the 155-page Decision here .
Local coverage and reaction appeared in the Regina Leader Post (May 3) in “Court of Appeal: Saskatchewan government loses carbon tax challenge , and the Premier of Saskatchewan immediately declared that the province will appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada, which it must do within 30 days. As the Globe and Mail points out, “Saskatchewan court rules federal carbon tax constitutional in first of several legal challenges” . According to a CBC report, the Premier of New Brunswick is still considering his options, but newly-elected Premier Jason Kenny of Alberta will join the Saskatchewan Supreme Court action. The Premier of Manitoba announced that his government will not abandon its own court challenge, which it launched on April 3. In Ontario, the Ford government is aggressively promoting its own battle over the carbon tax: four days of hearings ended on April 18th, and the Ontario Court of Appeal is expected to render its own decision on the constitutionality of the carbon tax in several months – possibly not until after the federal election in October 2019.
The political significance of the Saskatchewan decision: Aaron Wherry at CBC summarizes the general situation in “The carbon tax survived Saskatchewan. That was the easy part” (May 4). The Globe and Mail states what is a widely accepted opinion in its editorial, “Why conservatives secretly love the carbon tax”: “Round One goes to Ottawa. But the courtroom war against the federal carbon tax continues – waged by a fraternity of conservative provincial governments with more of an eye on immediate political returns than ultimate legal outcomes.”
Update: Three law professors- Jason MacLean (University of Saskatchewan), Nathalie Chalifour ( University of Ottawa) and Sharon Mascher (University of Calgary) published a reaction to the Saskatchewan Court’s decision on May 7 in The Conversation. “Work on Climate not weaponizing the constitution” takes issue with some of the finer legal points of the decision, but welcomes the Court’s recognition of the urgency and scale of the climate emergency, and concludes: “We have to stop weaponizing the Constitution and start working together, across party lines at all levels of government, on urgent and ambitious climate action.”
On April 29, Eco Canada released a new report, Energy Efficiency Employment in Canada , stating that “Canada’s energy efficiency goods and services sector directly employed an estimated 436,000 permanent workers in 2018 and is poised to grow by 8.3% this year, creating over 36,000 jobs.” According to the agency’s press release, this is the first report of its kind in Canada to offer a comprehensive breakdown of revenue, employment figures, and hiring challenges. One of the key takeaways of the report is highlighted in an article in The Energy Mix: “Energy Efficiency employs 436,000 Canadians – more than twice the total in oil and gas ”
Some highlights from Energy Efficiency Employment in Canada:
- Energy efficiency workers in 2018 were employed across approximately 51,000 business establishments across six industries: construction, manufacturing, wholesale trade, professional and business services, utilities, and other services.
- Construction is by far the largest employer with 287,000 jobs across 39,000 establishments – 66% of the energy efficiency workforce. The next largest industry is wholesale trade, with 47,836 jobs (11%).
- Among the direct and permanent energy efficiency workforce across all industries, approximately 29% spent all their time, 27% spent most of their time, and 44% spent a portion of their time on energy efficiency activities.
- Just under one-fifth or 18% of workers were female, and 2% were Indigenous, (both figures lower than national workforce averages).
- Approximately 58% of energy efficiency workers were 35 or older.
- 42% of energy efficiency workers were between ages 18 and 34 (compared to 33% in the national workforce).
- Energy efficiency employment grew by almost 2.8% from 2017 to 2018, compared to 1.0% for all jobs nationally.
- At 2.3% of Canada’s economy, Canadian energy efficiency employment makes up a greater share of the economy than it does in the United States, at 1.9% .
The report is a result of a comprehensive survey conducted in the Fall 2018 with 1,853 business establishments, and also relies on Statistics Canada data. It tracks the methodology of the United States Energy Employment Report (USEER), to make comparisons consistent. The research is funded by Natural Resources Canada and the Government of Canada’s Sectoral Initiatives Program.