Sadly, we are becoming used to seeing headlines about the costs of fighting climate change-related wildfires, hurricanes, and floods – most recently, the record wildfire season of 2017. These news reports usually discuss loss in terms of the value of insurance claims – for example, “Northern Alberta Wildfire Costliest Insured Natural Disaster in Canadian History – Estimate of insured losses: $3.58 billion” from the Insurance Bureau of Canada, or in terms of the budgets of emergency service agencies – for example, “Cost of fighting U.S. wildfires topped $2 billion in 2017” from Reuters (Sept. 14), or in terms of health and mental health effects – for example, “Economic analysis of health effects from forest fires” in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research (2006). “The Science behind B.C.’s Forest Fires” (December 5) post by West Coast Environmental Law discusses the links to climate change, and concludes that the record wildfires of 2017 foreshadow growing economic and human costs in the future.
When employment effects of disasters are reported, it is usually by statistical agencies interested in working days lost or unemployment effects, for example, “Wildfires in northern Alberta: Impact on hours worked, May and June, 2016” from Statistics Canada, or “Hurricane Katrina’s effects on industry employment and wages ” from the Bureau of Labor Statistics ( 2006) . While all these are important, Hurricane Katrina taught that there are also other aspects, including those of environmental and economic justice.
One recent example which illustrates recurring patterns: on December 5, the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Episcopal Health Foundation in Texas released the results of a survey about the impacts of Hurricane Harvey . While most of the survey reports on the loss of homes and cars, it also measures employment impacts: 46% of respondents reported that they or someone else in their household lost job-related income as a result of the storm – through fewer hours at work (32%), losing a job entirely (12%) or losing income from a small business or unpaid missed days (32%). And as so often is the case, income disruptions affected a greater share of Hispanic (65%) and Black (46%) residents compared to White residents (31%).
Two recent news reports highlight a more surprising story of the California wildfires: “California Is Running Out of Inmates to Fight Its Fires” in The Atlantic (Dec. 7 2017) and “Incarcerated women risk their lives fighting California fires. It’s part of a long history of prison labor” (Oct. 22, 2017) . These articles describe the long-standing practice in California of using prison inmates as firefighters: in the current season, almost 3,000 of the 9,000 firefighters battling wildfires are inmates, who get a few dollars plus two days off their sentences for each day spent fighting wildfires.
The Fort MacMurray wildfires in northern Alberta in 2016 rank as the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history, exceeding the previous record, which was the 2013 flooding in Calgary and southern Alberta. That ranking is based on the estimate by the Insurance Bureau of Canada of $3.58 billion; the Conference Board of Canada also reported on the economic impacts (free; registration required). Statistics Canada measured work days lost and employment insurance claims through their Labour Force Survey instrument, and so were able to differentiate effects by sector, sex and age, as location, in two reports: Wildfires in northern Alberta: Impact on hours worked, May and June, 2016 (November 2016) and “Wildfires in northern Alberta affected hours and Employment Insurance beneficiaries”, a section in the Annual Review of the Labour Market, 2016 .
Another assessment of the total financial impact of the Fort McMurray wildfire estimated the financial impact of the Fort MacMurray fire was $9.9 billion, as reported by the CBC (January 2017) and the Toronto Star (January 17). That research, by two economists from MacEwan University in Edmonton, was commissioned by the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction , but does not appear to have been published as of December 2017. Their estimates included indirect impacts such as the expense of replacing buildings and infrastructure, lost income, and lost profits and royalties in the oilsands and forestry industries. And they estimate the mental health impacts and cost of suffering of the firefighters as $3.78 million.
Excellent news reports also described the employment situation – including the government and union support for workers : “ Fort MacMurray wildfires leaves livelihoods in limbo” in the Globe and Mail (updated March 2017); “Fort MacMurray smoke halts major oilsands project” in the National Observer (May 7 2016), “ Fort McMurray firefighters who slew ‘The Beast’ now battling emotional demons” from CBC News (July 3 2016) , and “Resilient but tired: Mental effects of wildfire lingering in Fort McMurray” in The National Observer (Dec. 18 2017).
An Employment Fact Sheet from ProBono Law website answers FAQ’s regarding workers’ rights in Alberta as of May 2016 – such questions as: . “If business operations are badly affected and an employer has no work for some or all employees, does the employer have to pay them …?” (No); “An employee’s home was badly affected by the fire. Are they entitled to paid or unpaid leave to sort out the personal problems caused by the fire?” (No, employees are not entitled , but some employers do offer such leaves as part of their benefit plans or will offer them if asked.) Future recourse regarding leave provisions may be available as of January 2018, when the Alberta Employment Standards Code is amended to provide new Personal and Family Responsibility Leave of up to 5 days of job protection per year for personal sickness or short-term care of an immediate family member, which includes attending to personal emergencies. And failing that, there is always the hope, as described in the Toronto Star, that “Workplaces are adapting to climate change by offering paid extreme weather leave” (November 14).