U.S. energy employment report: statistics by gender, age, race, and union status

USEER May 2018 reportThe 2018 U.S. Energy & Employment Report (USEER) was released in May, reporting that the traditional Energy and Energy Efficiency sectors employ approximately 6.5 million Americans, with a job growth rate of approximately 133,000 net new jobs in 2017 – approximately 7% of total U.S. new job growth.   The report provides detailed employment data for energy sectors including Electric Power Generation and Fuels Production (including biofuels, solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) and Electricity Transmission, Distribution and Storage. It also includes two energy end-use sectors: Energy Efficiency and Motor Vehicle production (including alternative fuel vehicles and parts production).  It is important to note that, unlike many other sources, this survey includes only direct jobs, and not indirect and induced jobs.

In addition to overall employment totals, the report provides an in-depth view of the hiring difficulty, in-demand occupations, and demographic composition of the workforce – including breakdowns by gender, age, race and by union composition.  As an example for solar electric power generation: “about a third of the solar workforce in 2017 was female, roughly two in ten workers are Hispanic or Latino, and under one in ten are Asian or are Black or African American. In 2017, solar projects involving PV technologies had a higher concentration of workers aged 55 and over, compared to CSP technologies.”

The previous USEER reports for 2016  and 2017  were compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Energy.  In 2018, under the Trump Administration, two non-profit organizations,  the National Association of State Energy Officials and the Energy Futures Initiative, took over the task of compiling the data, using the identical survey instrument developed by the DOE.  Timing was coordinated so that year over year comparisons with the precious surveys are possible.  Peer review of the report was performed by Robert Pollin, (Political Economy Research Institute) and  James Barrett, (Visiting Fellow, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy).  The overview website, with free data tables at the state level, is here   .

Gender equity practices needed in the Canada’s renewable energy sector

A new report argues that Canada’s renewable energy and aligned “climate prosperity” initiatives are perpetuating employment and income inequities for women in Canada, and calls for the renewable energy sector–a major area of action on climate change–to incorporate gender equity practices in workforce training, hiring, and management.  Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada: Feminist, Indigenous and Intersectional Perspectives  states that in countries such as Canada, United States, Spain, Germany, and Italy, women hold only 20-25% of jobs in the sector, and the vast majority of these jobs are lower paid, non-technical, administrative and public relations positions.   Further, while women  face social-economic barriers that leave them bearing the brunt of climate change impacts, they are  denied a role in developing policies and programs to mitigate climate change.  Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada makes a unique contribution in examining the roles and knowledge of  Indigenous women, and calls for solidarity across women’s groups to advance the paradigm shifts necessary to achieve gender mainstreaming and climate justice in Canada.   The report was produced in collaboration between the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Alliance for Intergenerational Resilience, with financial support from Work in a Warming World (W3) Project, partnered with Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Respond to Climate Change Project (ACW). A summary of the findings is at the ACW website; the full report is archived in the ACW Digital Library here.

More on this topic:  Creating and Optimizing Employment Opportunities for Women in the Clean Energy Sector in Canada  (2016) is an informal  working paper/knowledge synthesis by Bipasha Baruah, Canada Research Chair in Global Women’s Issues at Western University.  She states that “The conversation about gender equity or social justice (more broadly) in Canada’s green economy is at best incipient and tokenistic” , and calls for specific employment equity policies as well as a shift in societal attitudes. The article documents the same underrepresentation of women in the renewable energy industry, and argues that Canada lags other OECD countries in data collection and analysis, and policy initiatives.  “Renewable inequity? Women ’s employment in clean energy in industrialized, emerging and developing economies” is a more formal article by Baruah which appeared in Natural Resources Forum (2017).  The 2017 volume  Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action, edited by Marjorie Griffin Cohen, offers a still broader look at the issue of gender and climate change.

Why gender matters when dealing with climate change

Gender book coverClimate Change and Gender in Rich Countries:  Work, Public Policy and Action is a new book released in London by Routledge publishers, as part of its Studies in Climate, Work and Society series.  Reviewers call it “path-breaking”,”timely”, “exciting”,  “unique”, “excellent and wide-ranging”  and judge that it “moves beyond common perceptions of women as vulnerable victims to show there are no universal experiences of climate change. Gender is highly relevant but in complex ways.”

Editor Marjorie Griffin Cohen introduces the book by answering the question,Why Gender Matters when Dealing with Climate Change”.  18 chapters follow,  providing analysis and case studies from the U.K., Sweden, Australia, Canada, Spain and the U.S..  Some of the  chapters are: “ Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity?” by  Linda Clarke, Colin Gleeson and Christine Wall; “The US Example of Integrating Gender and Climate Change in Training: Response to the 2008–09 Recession”,  by  Marjorie Griffin Cohen; “UK Environmental and Trade Union Groups’ Struggles to Integrate Gender Issues into Climate Change Analysis and Activism”,  by  Carl Mandy; and “How a Gendered Understanding of Climate Change Can Help Shape Canadian Climate Policy”,  by  Nathalie Chalifour.

The book editor, Marjorie Griffin Cohen , is Professor Emeritus of Political Science and Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, and a Co-Investigator at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Climate Change project (ACW).  She was also an editor of “Women and Work in a Warming World (W4) ”  which appeared as Issue 94/95 in Women & Environments International Magazine  (2014/15).

The Green Economy includes Women and the Services Sector

A newly-released Special Issue of Women and Environments International Magazine (Winter 2014/2015) is devoted to Women and Work in a Warming World (W4) . Co-editors Marjorie Griffin Cohen and Patricia Perkins state: “it is crucial that governments and policy makers (and even environmentalists) broaden the view of what would constitute a ‘green economy’ to include a greater emphasis on care work and the services sectors. This would shift the typical policy focus from an emphasis on cleaning up dirty industries (which of course needs to be done), to including and promoting a more rational society designed to meet people’s fundamental needs: physical, political and social well-being. If a ‘green economy’ meant not just cleaner energy and transportation, but structural sustainability, women’s work would be clearly situated as central in bringing about this transition.” The issue articles include “Opportunities and Constraints for Women in the Renewable Energy Sector in India”, “Gender in Government Actions on Climate Change and Work: the U.S. example”, “Are There Jobs for Women in Green Job Creation?” (re Canada), and “Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity?”.

Green Jobs, Green Economies from a Social/Gender Justice Lens

A discussion paper released in February by the ILO and the Global Labour University provides a wide-ranging and well-documented global analysis of Green New Deal programs, green economies, and green jobs. Some excerpts: “…while advocates of the green economy promise the elimination of poverty, the green economy agenda is a new version of what has been described as finance-led accumulation and as such a continuation of the neoliberal project that has fuelled inequality during the past three decades”. Of green jobs, he observes, “statistical evidence suggests that many of the assumptions associated with green jobs are far too optimistic”. Referencing Austrian, EU, and South African studies, he states, “statistical evidence suggests that in terms of working conditions they (i.e. green jobs) are actually worse than average jobs…in sum, female workers are clearly disadvantaged when it comes to the distribution of the benefits from green growth”. Finally, “in sum, an alternative approach to a green transition towards a more sustainable economy and society must go beyond the goal of a thermal insulated capitalism and promote ecological, gender and social justice”. The author particularly discusses the importance of hours of work as a key factor in equality/inequality, and in ecological damage. Source: Green New Deal and the Question of Environmental and Social Justice.