JOB IMPACTS OF TRANSIT, INFRASTRUCTURE, CLEAN ENERGY:The Economic Benefits of Public Infrastructure Spending in Canadareleased by the Broadbent Institute on September 15 includes transit in its definition of public infrastructure – along with highways, and water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. It concludes that a public infrastructure program can help an investment-led economic expansion. Employment impacts vary over short-term and long-term, but the report estimates a short-term job multiplier effect of 9.4 jobs generated per million dollars spent. The study concludes that “while employment gains may be limited, businesses are more productive and competitive, and workers earn higher real wages: up 0.4–0.6 per cent a year on average”.
A brief report released in August by the Donald Vial Center on Employment in the Green Economy at the University of California, Berkeley estimates the jobs created from California’s renewable energy investments from 2003 through 2014, and forecasts job creation between 2015 and 2030 as the state works to meet its 50% renewables portfolio standard (RPS). Job Impacts of California’s Existing and Proposed Renewables Portfolio Standard includes jobs related to the construction, but not maintenance and operation, of renewable energy facilities.
In June, the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) jointly released a 2-volume report which examines the policy frameworks needed for development of large-scale renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Global Green Growth: Clean Energy Industrial Investment and Expanding Job Opportunities(Volume 1 ) presents Overall Findings. Volume 2 assesses the employment impacts of the developments in Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, South Africa, and the Republic of Korea.
At the end of April, the Canadian Labour Congress posted profiles of three green economy sectors under the banner Real Alternatives for a Green Economy. The series describes new initiatives across Canada, and call for public policy initiatives to support the growth of a green economy. Regarding Energy, the CLC calls for “public investments totalling $4.65 billion need to be made to simulate the development of renewable energy sources with a priority being put on public sector owned and operated wind, solar, geothermal, and tidal power. “ Regarding transportation , they call for investment in light rail transportation, with strong domestic content rules . One example given for transit is the Ottawa Light Rail transit project; a report for that project compiles estimates of economic benefits, including job creation, for light rail projects around the world. The third segment of the series looks at Green Construction. The CLC posts follow closely the information on the website of the Green Economy Network , an alliance of Canadian labour unions, environment and social justice organizations, of which the CLC is a member.
The analysis forecasts 26,322 person years of new direct employment, 43,800 person years of total employment, $2.96 billion in wages, and $4.48 billion toward GDP in Metro Vancouver over its 10 year life span. Additionally, the area would experience an 8.2% decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from transport, versus a business as usual approach, and the plan would save more than $1 billion in traffic congestion costs. By improving by 7% the number of jobs accessible by transit, the Plan would support targets for livability, growth, and location of employment.
. That report forecasts direct, indirect and induced jobs, finding 40,000 jobs created for the capital phase, and 197,000 created in operations from 2014-2045. The consultants’ report doesn’t address other economic benefits such as reduced congestion, improved goods movement, and improved labour mobility, nor does it forecast the environmental benefits. The Transit Plan is subject to a Referendum vote underway until May 29, 2015.
Nantes was chosen for the 2013 Award on the strength of its public transport policy. It was the first city in France to successfully re-introduce electric tramways, and plans to encourage bicycle and public bus infrastructure. The Award, begun in 2010 by the European Commission, recognizes a consistent record and a commitment to future goals and ambitions for environmental improvement and sustainable development. See: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreencapital/winning-cities/2013-nantes/index.html
An October 30 announcement from Ontario’s Premier states that Ontario will become the first Canadian province to implement a “green bonds” program to help fund environmentally-friendly transportation. According to the government, the bonds would help address critical infrastructure needs, create jobs, and strengthen the economy while keeping funding interest rates low and minimizing costs for consumers. The bonds would also be internationally certified, so they could be officially recognized as investments in sustainability. Green bonds are securities that raise capital for specific projects with environmental benefits. According to think-tank Clean Energy Canada, green bonds are in high demand which, combined with Ontario’s attractive credit rating, may result in substantial benefit to Ontario’s sustainable transportation sector.
A review of Quebec’s energy strategy is underway, with public consultations from September to October 11, and the final strategy document promised in 2014. The six strategic objectives to the energy review are: “to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; promote the electrification of transportation and develop the industry; promote energy efficiency in all sectors ; rely on the production of renewable energies (hydroelectricity and wind energy) and develop alternative renewable energies (underwater generators, passive solar energy, geothermal energy, and so on) and foster development and innovation; responsibly explore and exploit Québec’s hydrocarbon reserves; and ensure the long-term security and diversity of Québec’s energy supplies.” The Public Consultation on Energy Issues in Quebec website is at: http://consultationenergie.gouv.qc.ca/english/ (English) and http://consultationenergie.gouv.qc.ca/ (French language).
A new article demonstrates the combination of strategies which might reduce Toronto’s per capita GHG emissions by over 70%. “With current policies, especially cleaning of the electricity grid, Toronto’s per-capita GHG emissions could be reduced by 30 per cent over the next 20 years. To go further, however, reducing emissions in the order of 70 per cent, would require significant retrofitting of the building stock, utilization of renewable heating and cooling systems, and the complete proliferation of electric, or other low carbon, automobiles.”