Two new reports were released in May in the Smart Prosperity Clean Economy Working Paper Series. Identifying Promising Policies and Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Global Green Employment by Bipasha Baruah, synthesizes and analyses existing literature on women’s employment in manufacturing, construction and transportation – “brown” sectors which are important in the transition to a green economy. From the paper: “The literature points to four overarching barriers that exist for women who seek to enter and remain in these fields: lack of information and awareness about employment in these sectors, gender bias and gender stereotyping, masculinist work culture and working conditions, and violence against women. … Most policies designed to address women’s underrepresentation in these fields tend to be reactive responses that do not engage adequately with broader societal structures and institutions that produce and maintain inequality. Improving lighting in construction sites in order to prevent sexual assaults against women and requiring women to work in pairs instead of alone are classic examples of reactive policies that end up reinforcing social hierarchies rather than challenging them… …. Raising broader societal awareness about the benefits of gender equity, and about women’s equal entitlement to employment in all fields, is as crucial as policy reforms and state or corporate actions that protect women’s interests and facilitate their agency. “ The discussion includes interesting observations about women’s challenges in engineering professions and in apprenticeships.
The second paper, also by Bipasha Baruah, is Creating and Optimizing Employment Opportunities for Women in the Clean Energy Sector in Canada . This paper has been released previously and was highlighted in April 2018 in the Work and Climate Change Report, along with Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada: Feminist, Indigenous and Intersectional Perspectives , published by Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces in Canada`, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Alliance for Intergenerational Resilience. Both reports note the underrepresentation of women in the clean energy industry and call for improvements in workforce training and hiring; the working paper by Bipasha Baruah emphasizes the need for change in societal attitudes.
The publisher, Smart Prosperity is based at the University of Ottawa, and announced major new funding at the end of March 2018 , which will enable new research in a “Greening Growth Partnership” initiative. Click here for information about the funding and the international experts who will be participating in Smart Prosperity research.
A new report argues that Canada’s renewable energy and aligned “climate prosperity” initiatives are perpetuating employment and income inequities for women in Canada, and calls for the renewable energy sector–a major area of action on climate change–to incorporate gender equity practices in workforce training, hiring, and management. Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada: Feminist, Indigenous and Intersectional Perspectives states that in countries such as Canada, United States, Spain, Germany, and Italy, women hold only 20-25% of jobs in the sector, and the vast majority of these jobs are lower paid, non-technical, administrative and public relations positions. Further, while women face social-economic barriers that leave them bearing the brunt of climate change impacts, they are denied a role in developing policies and programs to mitigate climate change. Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada makes a unique contribution in examining the roles and knowledge of Indigenous women, and calls for solidarity across women’s groups to advance the paradigm shifts necessary to achieve gender mainstreaming and climate justice in Canada. The report was produced in collaboration between the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Alliance for Intergenerational Resilience, with financial support from Work in a Warming World (W3) Project, partnered with Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Respond to Climate Change Project (ACW). A summary of the findings is at the ACW website; the full report is archived in the ACW Digital Library here.
More on this topic: Creating and Optimizing Employment Opportunities for Women in the Clean Energy Sector in Canada (2016) is an informal working paper/knowledge synthesis by Bipasha Baruah, Canada Research Chair in Global Women’s Issues at Western University. She states that “The conversation about gender equity or social justice (more broadly) in Canada’s green economy is at best incipient and tokenistic” , and calls for specific employment equity policies as well as a shift in societal attitudes. The article documents the same underrepresentation of women in the renewable energy industry, and argues that Canada lags other OECD countries in data collection and analysis, and policy initiatives. “Renewable inequity? Women ’s employment in clean energy in industrialized, emerging and developing economies” is a more formal article by Baruah which appeared in Natural Resources Forum (2017). The 2017 volume Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action, edited by Marjorie Griffin Cohen, offers a still broader look at the issue of gender and climate change.
Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action is a new book released in London by Routledge publishers, as part of its Studies in Climate, Work and Society series. Reviewers call it “path-breaking”,”timely”, “exciting”, “unique”, “excellent and wide-ranging” and judge that it “moves beyond common perceptions of women as vulnerable victims to show there are no universal experiences of climate change. Gender is highly relevant but in complex ways.”
Editor Marjorie Griffin Cohen introduces the book by answering the question, “Why Gender Matters when Dealing with Climate Change”. 18 chapters follow, providing analysis and case studies from the U.K., Sweden, Australia, Canada, Spain and the U.S.. Some of the chapters are: “ Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity?” by Linda Clarke, Colin Gleeson and Christine Wall; “The US Example of Integrating Gender and Climate Change in Training: Response to the 2008–09 Recession”, by Marjorie Griffin Cohen; “UK Environmental and Trade Union Groups’ Struggles to Integrate Gender Issues into Climate Change Analysis and Activism”, by Carl Mandy; and “How a Gendered Understanding of Climate Change Can Help Shape Canadian Climate Policy”, by Nathalie Chalifour.
The book editor, Marjorie Griffin Cohen , is Professor Emeritus of Political Science and Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, and a Co-Investigator at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Climate Change project (ACW). She was also an editor of “Women and Work in a Warming World (W4) ” which appeared as Issue 94/95 in Women & Environments International Magazine (2014/15).
The 2016 edition of Tracking the Clean Energy Revolution: Canada was released by Clean Energy Canada in June with an upbeat message, despite the fact that renewable energy investment and development slowed in some provinces ( 89% in Alberta, 52% in British Columbia, 15% in Ontario, and 9% in Quebec). At the same time, investment grew in Atlantic Canada, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, so that it was still Canada’s second-best year on record for clean energy spending, and renewable generation capacity grew by 4 per cent. The main message of the report, however, is that a new spirit of cooperation and ambition has developed with the change of leadership in the federal government. The report lists the renewable projects, their size, and companies involved throughout the country, but doesn’t report on employment impacts. For that, consult the latest survey by the International Renewable Energy Agency, Renewable Energy and Jobs 2016 . Canada ranks 11th, with an estimated 36,000 clean energy jobs, well behind the top countries of China (with 3.5 million jobs!), Brazil, the United States, India, Japan and Germany. Solar Photovoltaics continues to be the largest renewable energy employer with 2.8 million jobs worldwide in 2015, an 11% increase over 2014. For the first time, IRENA published gender-based employment figures, based on their own online survey. Women represent 35% of the workforce in the 90 renewable energy companies surveyed from 40 countries – higher than the energy industry average of 20-25%. On average, women represent 46% of the administrative workforce, 28% of the technical workforce, and 32% of management roles. Earlier IRENA reports are here .
Women in Renewable Energy (WiRE) is a new group, launched at the 2013 CanWEA conference, with the aim to highlight, enhance, and expand the role of women in the renewable energy sector in Ontario. WiRE is taking over from the Greater Toronto Chapter of Women of Wind Energy (WoWE) and is led by women working in diverse sectors of the clean energy economy, including the engineering, legal, insurance, technology, environmental assessment and services, permitting, project and business development fields. WiRE focuses on advancing the knowledge base and professional development of its members and conducting community outreach.
Future initiatives will likely involve connecting women who work in the sector with students and others not currently involved in renewable energy. Related organizations worldwide include: Women in Renewable Energy Scotland and Women in Renewable Energy Hawaii. WoWE also continues to connect women working in wind energy through local chapters across North America.
See Women in Renewable Energy website at: http://womeninrenewableenergy.ca/; “New Ontario Organization is Advancing the Role of Women in Renewable Energy” Blog post at the Alternatives Journal website at: http://www.alternativesjournal.ca/community/blogs/renewable-energy/new-ontario-organization-advancing-role-women-renewable-energy.
Women of Wind Energy website is at: http://www.womenofwindenergy.org/;Women in Renewable Energy Scotland website is at: www.wirescotland.com/; Hawaii Women in Renewable Energy website is available at: http://hawaiiwire.org/.