Amidst the noise and fury of the B.C.-Alberta feud over the Kinder Morgan TransMountain pipeline, the province of British Columbia is moving forward with reform of its climate change policies. On April 25, the B.C. Climate Solutions and Clean Growth Advisory Council released a detailed letter to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change Strategy , describing the Council’s principles, supporting much of the government’s current direction, and making recommendations, based on the 2015 recommendations of the province’s Climate Leadership Team. Shortly thereafter, on May 7, a government press release committed to a new provincial climate action strategy to be released in autumn 2018, including plans for GHG emission reduction for buildings and communities, industry and transportation sectors.
With that same press release, the government announced Bill 34, the Climate Change Accountability Act, which amends the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act (2007), repealing the emissions reduction target for 2020 (generally deemed unachievable) and sets new targets: reduction of GHG’s by 40% from 2007 levels by 2030, 60% by 2040, and 80% by 2050. Accountability looms large in the responses to Bill 34. The Pembina Institute notes the failure of recent GHG emissions reductions, and calls for “a robust accountability mechanism to ensure history doesn’t repeat itself ”. In addition, Pembina notes that any development of emissions-intensive industries, such as liquefied natural gas, would jeopardize the province’s climate progress.
In “Looking for accountability in BC’s Climate Change Accountability Act”, West Coast Environment Law reviews B.C.’s emissions reduction progress , summarizes responses by other environmental groups to Bill 34, and recommends how the government can incorporate principles of accountability and transparency in its new policies. Similar concerns are discussed in “A Carbon Budget Framework for BC: Achieving accountability and oversight” by Marc Lee, in CCPA’s Policy Notes (May 22).
Another policy issue under review in B.C. is environmental assessment, with a 12-member advisory committee appointed in March 2018, a public discussion paper promised for May, and reforms to come in Fall. The government portal to the “Revitalization” process is here ; “B.C. Moves Ahead With Review of Controversial Environmental Assessment Process” (Mar 8) summarizes the situation. On May 9, twenty-three environmental, legal, social justice and community organizations released Achieving Sustainability: A Vision for Next-Generation Environmental Assessment in British Columbia , which calls for an independent environmental assessment body which will involve the public, and require decision-makers to demonstrate that their decisions are based on science and Indigenous knowledge. A summary, with links to more detailed discussion is provided by West Coast Environmental Law. Analysis and practical examples are provided by Sarah Cox in “Time For a Fix: B.C. Looks at Overhaul of Reviews for Mines, Dams and Pipelines”, which appeared in April in the newly-named newsletter from DeSmog Canada, The Narwhal.
More than sixty members of Unifor met federal Members of Parliament in Ottawa on May 24, to convey the union’s positions on four major issues: pharmacare, child care, public control of airports, and Just Transition. The press release is here ; the four page Just Transition backgrounder is here . In it, the union expresses its broad support of the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change and carbon pricing, calls for federal policy leadership to ensure that workers do not bear the brunt of climate change-induced industrial restructuring, and offers specific recommendations.
Unifor’s Recommendations are noteworthy in that they explicitly call for a role for collective bargaining (or worker representation in non-unionized workplaces). From the text: “Unifor sees two potential avenues to finance Just Transition. The first means is through the new federal carbon tax, which need not be entirely revenue neutral. A portion of the proceeds could be used to create a ‘Green Economy Bank’ or some such fiscal mechanism. The second option is to bolster the Low Carbon Economy Fund, which is already explicitly committed to job creation, but should be geared towards good, green job creation, and widen its mission.” ….. Unifor calls for “Labour market impact assessments to monitor the emergent effects of climate related policy; Community benefit agreements, to support regions that are more heavily dependent on carbon-intensive economic activities; The promotion of green economy retraining and skills upgrading, through appropriate funding for postsecondary institutions. This includes mandatory apprenticeship ratio’s linked to college training programs and skills trades certification processes; Preferential hiring for carbon-displaced workers, including relocation assistance; Income support, employment insurance flexibility and pension bridging for workers in carbon-intensive economic regions and industries; Tax credits, accelerated depreciation, grants and/or investment support for firms and industries that bear an extraordinary burden of change; In unionized workplaces, there needs to be a role carved out for the bargaining agent in negotiating and facilitating workplace transition. In non-unionized workplaces we need to envisage a role for workers to provide input on adjustment processes and procedures.”
Unifor is Canada’s largest private sector union, with more than 315,000 members across the country in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, mining, fishing, as well as automobile and auto parts manufacturing. Some of its existing collective agreements, compiled in the ACW database, have long-established workplace environment committees.
The 2018 U.S. Energy & Employment Report (USEER) was released in May, reporting that the traditional Energy and Energy Efficiency sectors employ approximately 6.5 million Americans, with a job growth rate of approximately 133,000 net new jobs in 2017 – approximately 7% of total U.S. new job growth. The report provides detailed employment data for energy sectors including Electric Power Generation and Fuels Production (including biofuels, solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) and Electricity Transmission, Distribution and Storage. It also includes two energy end-use sectors: Energy Efficiency and Motor Vehicle production (including alternative fuel vehicles and parts production). It is important to note that, unlike many other sources, this survey includes only direct jobs, and not indirect and induced jobs.
In addition to overall employment totals, the report provides an in-depth view of the hiring difficulty, in-demand occupations, and demographic composition of the workforce – including breakdowns by gender, age, race and by union composition. As an example for solar electric power generation: “about a third of the solar workforce in 2017 was female, roughly two in ten workers are Hispanic or Latino, and under one in ten are Asian or are Black or African American. In 2017, solar projects involving PV technologies had a higher concentration of workers aged 55 and over, compared to CSP technologies.”
The previous USEER reports for 2016 and 2017 were compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2018, under the Trump Administration, two non-profit organizations, the National Association of State Energy Officials and the Energy Futures Initiative, took over the task of compiling the data, using the identical survey instrument developed by the DOE. Timing was coordinated so that year over year comparisons with the precious surveys are possible. Peer review of the report was performed by Robert Pollin, (Political Economy Research Institute) and James Barrett, (Visiting Fellow, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy). The overview website, with free data tables at the state level, is here .
Two new reports were released in May in the Smart Prosperity Clean Economy Working Paper Series. Identifying Promising Policies and Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Global Green Employment by Bipasha Baruah, synthesizes and analyses existing literature on women’s employment in manufacturing, construction and transportation – “brown” sectors which are important in the transition to a green economy. From the paper: “The literature points to four overarching barriers that exist for women who seek to enter and remain in these fields: lack of information and awareness about employment in these sectors, gender bias and gender stereotyping, masculinist work culture and working conditions, and violence against women. … Most policies designed to address women’s underrepresentation in these fields tend to be reactive responses that do not engage adequately with broader societal structures and institutions that produce and maintain inequality. Improving lighting in construction sites in order to prevent sexual assaults against women and requiring women to work in pairs instead of alone are classic examples of reactive policies that end up reinforcing social hierarchies rather than challenging them… …. Raising broader societal awareness about the benefits of gender equity, and about women’s equal entitlement to employment in all fields, is as crucial as policy reforms and state or corporate actions that protect women’s interests and facilitate their agency. “ The discussion includes interesting observations about women’s challenges in engineering professions and in apprenticeships.
The second paper, also by Bipasha Baruah, is Creating and Optimizing Employment Opportunities for Women in the Clean Energy Sector in Canada . This paper has been released previously and was highlighted in April 2018 in the Work and Climate Change Report, along with Women and Climate Change Impacts and Action in Canada: Feminist, Indigenous and Intersectional Perspectives , published by Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces in Canada`, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women and the Alliance for Intergenerational Resilience. Both reports note the underrepresentation of women in the clean energy industry and call for improvements in workforce training and hiring; the working paper by Bipasha Baruah emphasizes the need for change in societal attitudes.
The publisher, Smart Prosperity is based at the University of Ottawa, and announced major new funding at the end of March 2018 , which will enable new research in a “Greening Growth Partnership” initiative. Click here for information about the funding and the international experts who will be participating in Smart Prosperity research.
The International Labor Organization released its annual World Employment and Social Outlook Report for 2018 on May 14, with the theme: Greening with Jobs. In an economy where global warming is limited to 2°C , the report projects job losses and job creation, both within and amongst sectors, to 2030. A net increase of approximately 18 million jobs globally will result from adoption of sustainable practices, such as changes in the energy mix, the projected growth in the use of electric vehicles, and increases in energy efficiency in existing and future buildings.
This landmark report also includes analysis and discussion of climate impacts on working conditions, job quality, and productivity, (including estimates of impacts of extreme weather conditions), and the need for social dialogue and a legal and policy framework which promotes just transition. Of particular interest is the discussion of the role of social dialogue, which includes examples of green provisions in international and national agreements – and on page 94, highlights green provisions in Canadian collective agreements, based on the database compiled by the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Climate Change project.
Other key findings from the press release :
Of the 163 economic sectors analysed, only 14 will suffer employment losses of more than 10,000 jobs worldwide – hardest hit: petroleum extraction and petroleum refining (1 million or more jobs).
2.5 million jobs will be created in renewables-based electricity, offsetting some 400,000 jobs lost in fossil fuel-based electricity generation.
6 million jobs can be created by transitioning towards a ‘circular economy’ which includes activities like recycling, repair, rent and remanufacture.
A 5-page summary is available in English and in French . The full report, Greening with Jobs, is here .